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Glossary of Terms

These words are defined below as they are used in the specialized fields for which Audio Authority products are made. Those industries include Consumer Audio-Video, Retail Demonstration, Bank and Pharmacy Equipment, and General Aviation. These definitions do not cover other applications, and are not meant to be a exhaustive or technical. 

Numbers, A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A to D (Analog-to-Digital converter)Electronic equipment used to change or convert an analog (waveform style) signal into a digital signal (made up of 1s and 0s).
A-B TestA test by which an observer subjectively compares the performance of two components of the same type; for example, a test between two different speakers. For the test to be scientifically valid, the inputs, levels, and listening conditions should be matched.
A-VAudio-video. The term can be applied to any device that produces, receives, or transmits sound and motion images. Preferred form: A-V and audio-video; also AV or A/V.
AAC (audio format)Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is an audio coding standard for lossy digital audio compression. Designed to be the successor of the MP3 format, AAC generally achieves better sound quality than MP3 at the same bit rate. AAC has been standardized by ISO and IEC, as part of the MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 specifications.
AC-3Audio Codec 3 from Dolby Digital was the first digital audio bitstream used for multi-channel surround-sound audio in cinemas.
acoustic couplingThe interaction between two or more speakers stacked together in a PA system which may produce a sound different to (and often better than) the sound produced by the individual speakers.
acoustic feedbackA phenomenon where the sound from a loudspeaker is picked up by the microphone or other transducer, like a phono cartridge feeding it, and re-amplifies it through the same loudspeaker only to return to the same microphone to be re-amplified again, etc.. Each time the signal becomes larger until the system runs away and rings, or feeds back on itself producing the characteristic scream or squeal found in sound (mostly, PA) systems. These buildups often occur at particular frequencies called feedback frequencies.
acoustic suspensionA type of speaker enclosure that is completely sealed with no port or other device to let air inside the enclosure flow outside the enclosure.
acousticsThe area of study which deals with the behavior of sound. Also the effect a given environment has on sound.
active crossoverActive CrossoverUses electronics supplied with a power source and acting on the sound to shift sound reproduction tasks from one speaker driver to another.
AHDAnalog High Definition. A competing technology with TVI that transmits high definition surveillance camera video.
aiffShort for Audio Interchange File Format, a common format for storing and transmitting sampled sound, developed by Apple Computer and the standard audio format for Macintosh computers. Files are 8-bit mono or stereo and generally end with a .AIF or .IEF extension. Normal AIFF does not support data compression so files tend to be large, but another format called AIIF-Compressed (AIFF-C or AIFC) does support compression.
ampAbbreviation for ampere, the unit of electrical current. Also an abbreviation for amplifier.
ampereUnit of electrical current.
amplification classesAmplification classes are letter symbols applied to different power amplifier types. The class gives a broad indication of an amplifer's characteristics and performance. The classes are related to the time period that the active amplifier device is passing current, expressed as a fraction of the period of a signal waveform applied to the input.
amplifierA device which increases or boosts the level of an input signal by increasing its amplitude. Amplifier, Power: An amplifier without tone controls, usually with a higher power output than a line amplifier or pre-amp. Commonly used to drive loudspeakers.
amplitudeThe 'level' (perceived as 'volume') of an electrical or acoustic signal. Shown as the value of the vertical axis on a typical graph of a sound wave.
analogOn a basic level, analog describes any quantity which varies continuously without distinct steps. For sound waves in air, this refers to the continuous variation in air pressure; for an audio signal, this refers to the continuous variation in current or voltage. Audio and video can be recorded and transmitted in two ways: analog and digital. Analog refers to audio recorded using methods that replicate the original sound waves (e.g., FM radio, vinyl records, VCRs and cassette tapes) so you could say that it is a signal which is "analogous" to the original source. Digital audio is recorded by taking samples of the original sound wave and recording it in a digital format (ones and zeroes). Examples would be iPods and DVDs. Analog signals can be converted to digital, and vice-versa, but ultimately humans see and hear in analog.
AndroidAndroid is a mobile operating system developed by Google. It is used by several smartphones and tablets. The Android operating system (OS) is based on the Linux kernel. Unlike Apple's iOS, Android is open source, meaning developers can modify and customize the OS for each phone or tablet.
ARC (Audio Return Channel)A feature of the HDMI specification (first appearing in v1.4, released in 2009) that allows audio to be sent "upstream" from the TV's HDMI inputs back to the audio system's HDMI output in order to listen to the TV's internal audio sources, like smart TV apps and tuned over-the-air channels.
architectural speakersLoudspeakers designed to be installed in ceilings, walls, and floors in order to blend in with the architecture.
articulationA term used to describe clear and well understood audio reproduction in speech.
aspect ratioThe ratio of the width to the height of an image. Standard Definition television is 4:3 (1.33:1) ratio (almost square), while High Definition television uses 16:9 or 1.78:1 (much wider than it is tall). Even wider aspect ratios are available in projection systems, such as 2.35:1 - similar to most widescreen motion pictures. When viewing 4:3 video on a 16:9 screen, there are three basic ways to adapt the image: zoom (fills the screen, but the top and bottom are not seen), full screen (with black bars on either side of the image), and stretch (fills the screen, but everything is wider than normal).
attenuateTo reduce the amplitude of an electrical signal usually by using a volume control, fader or 'pad'. Also to reduce sound levels acoustically through the use of acoustic absorbers, resonators or structural materials.
audioThe audible frequency range of sound waves.
audio inputIn an audio/video system, the audio input is a connection on an electronic device allowing electronic signals with audio information sent by another component to enter.
audio outputThe connection point from which an audio signal is electronically transferred via a wire from one audio component to another; the origination point of an audio signal as it travels over a wire.
Audio-Video Receiver (AVR)A receiver, amplifier, audio and video switcher in one unit encompassing sound decoding with processing allowing for surround sound and multi-channel distribution.
audiophileA person who is particularly interested in and appreciative of audio.
AVIShort for Audio Video Interleave, the file format for Microsoft's Video for Windows standard.
AWG (American Wire Gauge)Accepted standard of measure for the diameter of wire or cable. A smaller number gauge represents a larger diameter. e.g. 12 AWG wire is a larger diameter wire than 14 AWG wire.
baffleFront panel of a speaker enclosure on which the drivers are placed.
balanceBalance(1) A term describing the level comparison between two audio channels such as right or left. (2) A term describing the mix of different frequencies to attain evenness between low, mid and high frequencies. (3) A term describing a way of feeding a signal with a separate positive, negative and grounded lines. (See below)
balanced lineA pair of ungrounded conductors ('hot' and 'cold') whose voltages are opposite in phase but equal in magnitude. At the destination end, the phase of the 'cold' is reversed thereby doubling the signal strength and cacelling any induced noise. Balanced lines therefore reduce interference from external sources like radio frequencies and light dimmers.
banana connectorA speaker wire termination consisting of a single, fat shaft which bulges on the sides similar to a banana and inserts in 5-way binding posts.
band pass filterA circuit that discriminates between frequencies and allows only the predetermined spectrum of frequencies to pass, eliminating those below and above the desired band.
bandwidthBandwidthThe frequency range across which an audio system can reproduce sound.
bassLower register of pitch; also a stringed musical instrument designed to play low frequency sounds; also a voice lower in pitch than a baritone.
bass reflexType of speaker enclosure which uses a port to increase bass output for a given power input resulting in 2 to 3 dB (decibels) more sound pressure than a similar sealed enclosure (also known as an acoustic suspension enclosure).
bi-wireTechnique used in connecting speakers to amplification sources in which two wires are run from each amplifier terminal to the corresponding speaker terminal instead of one.
biamplificationThe use of separate amplifiers to power woofers and tweeters.
binding postBinding PostA means of connecting speaker wire to an amplifier or speaker.
bipolar speakerType of loudspeaker that directs sound in two directions using speaker driver on two sides of the enclosure opposite one another operating in phase (meaning that they both push out at the same time and they both come in at the same time).
bitThe smallest piece of digital data; bits are represented by a one or a zero.
bit rateThe number of bits transferred in one second by a digital device such as a CD player.
BloomingThis effect is sometimes called whiter-than-white, and appears as a washed-out, blurry area around bright objects like headlights or sun glare. Blooming occurs when the white voltage level is exceeded and bright objects appear fuzzy and large on the video display.
Blu-rayBlu-ray is an optical disc format designed to display high definition video and store large amounts of data. Blu-ray is the successor to DVD.
BNC(Bayonet Fitting Connector) A professional quality cable termination which is used primarily in labs and professional studios as an interconnect.
bookshelf speakerA small loudspeaker, usually 12 to 24 inches in height, which is designed to sit on a stand, shelf, or table. Often used for stereo applications, or as rear speakers in a home theater system.
boundary effectsReverberations and sound irregularities caused by sound waves bouncing off hard surfaces, namely walls, floors and ceilings.
bridge (bridged)When two channels of an amplifier are combined to operate as a single mono channel to increase power output.
brightSound quality having a harsh or brittle high-end with too much focus on the upper frequencies.
busA circuit that connects devices together. In the Access Demonstration Network, a bus connects switch modules together. There are several types of bus, including System Bus, Low-level Bus, High-level bus, and DC Power Bus. Preferred: bus; also buss.
Buss or busA signal-carrying conductor or electrical pathway designed to carry multiple signals. e.g. a mixing console auxiliary bus may carry signals derived from several channels on that console
butterworth crossoverType of crossover that uses a low-pass filter design, which results in no amplitude anomalies in the frequencies passed on by the filter (the passband).
Cat 5 (Category 5 cable)Communication cabling that consists of four twisted pairs of copper wire, usually terminated with RJ45 connectors and capable of up to 100 Mbps over distance of up to 100 meters. Commonly used for data and telephone, it is now also used for distribution of audio and video signals.
Cat 5e (Category 5 Enhanced cable)Supports short-run 1000baseT (1,000 Mbps) networking by utilizing all four wire pairs.
Cat 6 (Category 6 cable)Supports 10 Gbps speeds up to 55 meters. Cat6 and Cat6a are constructed differently from Cat5 in order to enable higher speeds and less crosstalk.
Cat 6a (Category 6 Augmented cable)Supports 10 Gbps signals up to 100 meters.
Cat 7 (Category 7 cable)Supports 10 Gbps signals up to 300 meters
CCD SensorStandard resolution security camera. Literally "Charged Coupled Device." A light-sensitive array of silicon cells that is commonly used for digital camera image sensors. It generates electrical current in proportion to light input and allows the simultaneous capture of many pixels with one brief exposure.
CDCompact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982. The format was originally developed to store and play only sound recordings (CD-DA) but was later adapted for storage of data (CD-ROM).
CEC (Consumer Electronic Control)A feature of HDMI carried on the I2C bus that allows multiple connected products to be easily controlled with certain remote IR commands. An example is all products turned ON or OFF.
center channelThird front audio channel (in addition to main stereo left and right channels) found in surround sound audio systems with the primary task of reproducing movie dialogue (what the actors are saying) thus locking the voices to the screen for all listeners.
center channel speakerSpeaker used to output information from the center channel in a surround sound audio format.
channelA single module of a professional audio console, lighting control console, power amplifier, lighting dimmer or multi-core control cable, designed to carry one signal only and keep it separate from signals in other channels.
chrominanceThe portion of the video signal carrying the color.
CIFCCTV camera resolution equivalent to 352 x 240 pixels.
Class AWhen a tube or transistor amplifier operates in Class A, the output tubes or transistors amplify the entire waveform without splitting it into positive and negative halves.
Class ABIn Class AB, used in the overwhelming majority of amplifier designs, the signal is split into two halves, positive and negative, and each half is sent to a tube or transistor circuit for amplification. Both sides work in tandem, and the two halves are recombined at the output section to reconstruct the whole signal. This technique increases the amount of power that can be applied, but increases distortion. Class A amps usually provide lower, often imperceptible distortion, but at the expense of reduced power output.
Class BClass B amplifiers have their tube control-grids or transistor bases biased near plate- or collector-current cutoff, causing plate- or collector-current to flow only during approximately 180 degrees of each RF cycle. That causes the DC-source-power to RF-output-power efficiency to be much higher than with Class A amplifiers, but at the cost of severe output cycle waveform distortion. That waveform distortion is greatly reduced in practical designs by using relatively high-Q resonant output "tank" circuits to reconstruct full RF cycles.
Class CClass C amplifiers are biased well beyond cutoff, so that plate- or collector-current flows less than 180 degrees of each RF cycle. That provides even higher power-efficiency than Class B operation, but with the penalty of even higher input-to-output nonlinearity, making use of relatively high-Q resonant output tank circuits to restore complete RF sine-wave cycles essential. High amplifying-nonlinearity makes them unsuitable to amplify AM, DSB, or SSB signals. However, most Class C amplifiers can be amplitude-modulated with acceptably low distortion by varying plate- or collector-voltage, because they generally are operated in the region of plate- or collector-saturation so that the RF output voltage is very closely dependent upon instantaneous DC plate- or collector-voltage. They also are commonly used in CW and frequency-shift-keyed radiotelegraph applications and in phase- and frequency-modulated transmitter applications where signal amplitudes remain constant.
Class DClass D or High Current operation is essentially rapid switching, hence the term switching power amplifier. Here the output devices are rapidly switched on and off at least twice for each cycle. Theoretically, since the output devices are either completely on or completely off they do not dissipate any power. If a device is on there is a large amount of current flowing through it, but all the voltage is across the load, so the power dissipated by the device is zero; and when the device is off, the voltage is large, but the current is zero. Consequently, class D operation (often, but not necessarily digital) is theoretically 100% efficient, but this requires zero on-impedance switches with infinitely fast switching times -- a product yet to be made; meanwhile designs do exist with efficiencies approaching 90%. This is a design that is increasingly popular for use in bass systems, where maximum power is necessary, and slightly elevated levels of distortion are easily tolerated.
Class EThe class-E amplifier was invented in 1972 by Nathan O. Sokal and Alan D. Sokal, and details were first published in 1975.
Class E/FThe class-E/F amplifier is a highly efficient switching power amplifier, typically used at such high frequencies that the switching time becomes comparable to the duty time. As said in the class-D amplifier, the transistor is connected via a serial LC circuit to the load, and connected via a large L (inductor) to the supply voltage. The supply voltage is connected to ground via a large capacitor to prevent any RF signals leaking into the supply. The class-E amplifier adds a C (capacitor) between the transistor and ground and uses a defined L1 to connect to the supply voltage.
Class FIn push–pull amplifiers and in CMOS, the even harmonics of both transistors just cancel. Experiment shows that a square wave can be generated by those amplifiers. Theoretically square waves consist of odd harmonics only. In a class-D amplifier, the output filter blocks all harmonics; i.e., the harmonics see an open load. So even small currents in the harmonics suffice to generate a voltage square wave. The current is in phase with the voltage applied to the filter, but the voltage across the transistors is out of phase. Therefore, there is a minimal overlap between current through the transistors and voltage across the transistors. The sharper the edges, the lower the overlap.
Class GClass G amplifiers (which use "rail switching" to decrease power consumption and increase efficiency) are more efficient than class-AB amplifiers. These amplifiers provide several power rails at different voltages and switch between them as the signal output approaches each level. Thus, the amplifier increases efficiency by reducing the wasted power at the output transistors. Class-G amplifiers are more efficient than class AB but less efficient when compared to class D, without the negative EMI effects of class D.
Class HClass H amplifiers take the idea of Class G one step further creating an infinitely variable supply rail. This is done by modulating the supply rails so that the rails are only a few volts larger than the output signal at any given time. The output stage operates at its maximum efficiency all the time. Switched-mode power supplies can be used to create the tracking rails. Significant efficiency gains can be achieved but with the drawback of more complicated supply design and reduced THD performance. In common designs, a voltage drop of about 10V is maintained over the output transistors in Class H circuits. The picture above shows positive supply voltage of the output stage and the voltage at the speaker output. The boost of the supply voltage is shown for a real music signal.
clippingAudible distortion occurring when the peaks of an amplifier's output are flattened ('clipped'). When the input is too high, an amplifier has insufficient power to accurately reproduce the output waveform.
CMOS SensorComplementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor. CMOS sensors for digital video cameras are cheaper to manufacture and use less power than CCD sensors. CMOS has a greater potential for megapixel resolution. Most digital SLR cameras have CMOS image sensors, while the majority of digital video camcorders use CCD technology.
co-axial speakerType of speaker driver in which a high frequency driver (a tweeter in most cases) is placed inside a low or mid frequency driver in the place of the dust cap.
coaxial cableA communication cable type which has a center conductor and a braided shield. There are several varieties of coax cable used in homes such as RG59 (audio, video, cameras, etc.) and RG6 (cable, satellite, and antenna). Used to control impedance in low voltage cables. Consisting of a center conductor, dielectric, foil, braid, and outer jacket.
coaxial cableSpecific type of cable design with two conductors, one running through the center of the cable surrounded by some form of non-conductive insulator with a second braided conductor wrapped around the insulation material and serving double-duty as a shield against interference.
color saturationA term to describe how vivid and intense colors in the display appear, independent of brightness. If the color saturation is too low, colors appear washed out, but if the color saturation is too high, colors may appear too vivid.
Component VideoWhen a video signal is separately transmitted in three component colors of red, green, and blue. Compared to composite video, it provides superior detail, true color, and high resolution.
Composite VideoA video signal transmission where the chrominance (color) and luminance (brightness) are transmitted as one signal and are not separated. The transmission is along one coaxial cable with RCA or BNC connectors at each end.
compression (audio)The process of reducing the dynamic range of a given analogue audio program by making the loud parts quieter and the quiet parts louder.
compression (audio-video files)A process of temporarily or permanently reducing audio data for more efficient storage or transmission. A temporary reduction in file size is called 'non-lossy' compression, and no information is lost. A permanent reduction in file size (such as with mp3 files) is called 'lossy' compression, and involves discarding (supposedly) unnecessary information which is irretrievably lost.
compression (data)The process of packing digital data, such as computer files, more efficiently for the purpose of storage or transmission. Commonly referred to as 'stuffing' or 'zipping' a file.
compressorA type of dynamic range processor which reduces the gain of audio signals which are over an adjustable 'threshold' level, therefore reducing the dynamic range. Generally allows the operator control over threshold, ratio, attack and release times. Both analogue and digital types are available.
continuous busAccess modules are linked together with bus cables, and many bus circuits are direction-agnostic; the bus ports are not designated "in" or "out". That means that a continuous cable with plugs attached along it can be connected to multiple modules, delivering signals to all of them. System Bus, High-Level or Speaker Bus, and DC Power Bus can be continuous.
contrastThe relationship between the lightest and the darkest areas on a display device or picture. A small difference means low contrast and a large difference means high contrast.
crossoverAn electronic circuit which splits an audio signal into different frequency bands for routing to different speakers optimised for that frequency.
crosstalkAudio distortion resulting from information in one audio channel leaking into the signal of another channel.
CV or CVBSComposite video, usually a yellow RCA or a BNC connector. Standard format in the US is NTSC, 480i resolution.
D1CCTV camera resolution equivalent to 704 x 480 pixels.
DA (Distribution Amp)
DAC (Digital to Analog Converter)Electronic device that decodes digital data (ones and zeroes) into an analog waveform electrical signal that can be amplified and played by loudspeakers (or that can be used by a video display to form an image in the case of video DACs).
dampingAn audio system's ability to stop playing a signal after it has ended.
DATDigital Audio Tape. Tape which stores data digitally rather than in traditional analogue format. Current DATs use 16-bit word size and 44.1 or 48kHz sample rate giving CD quality. However, shelf life is currently an unknown quantity.
DAT (Digital Audio Tape)An older tape recording format used to record digital audio signals.
DCDirect Current
decayThe way a signal reduces in level over time immediately after the signal stops.
decibel (dB)Accepted unit of measure to express amplitude or power difference. A common measure to express volume or loudness; also used in measuring effectiveness of amplifiers.
decibel or dBEqual to 0.1 bel (B). A logarithm of a ratio used to indicate mathematically how a measured quantity compares to a standard reference quantity. One use, of many, is to represent Sound Pressure Levels (SPL) as numbers from 0dB (the softest sound that may be heard) to 120dB and beyond (the level at which sound is perceived as pain).
delaySignal processor which stores a signal for a short time before releasing it to the output. Combining the delayed and original sound allows for effects such as 'echo'. Multiple delay processors may produce 'time modulation' effects such as phasing, flanging and chorus.
diaphragmThe moving part of a speaker driver that generates sound through its movements which in turn create movement of air around the speaker.
diffractionBreak-up or distortion of a sound wave created when the sound wave hits a speaker cabinet, grille cover, or other similar component of the speaker that is creating the sound.
diffuseSound quality described by being hard to localize and fully filling a listening area; spread out. A diffuse sound field is one that encompasses the listener filling the listening space without being very directional (having low directivity).
digitalRepresented by a numerical code. For sound, the conversion of an analogue waveform to a series of numbers representing the instantaneous amplitude for each sample taken, the storage of those numbers, and the eventual conversion back to analogue format for replay.
digital audioMethod of encoding analog audio signals into digital bits of information typically using pulse code modulation resulting in high-quality signals that suffer from very little distortion and noise compared to analog signals, are easy to record and edit without degradation, are easy to transmit and record, and can be modified or adjusted quickly and without signal degradation.
digital audioThe recreation of sound by high-speed digital sampling. Analog signals are converted to a chain of 0’s and 1’s allowing for sophisticated decoding and encoding and electronic manipulation. The risk of reproducing and possibly amplifying noise or distortion is minimized.
digital audio cableAllows multiple Digital Audio channels to be transmitted through one cable. May be optical or coaxial. Optical cables may also be called Toslink. Coaxial cables are terminated with RCA or sometimes BNC connectors.
digital audio editingA method of manipulating digital audio information via a user interface or editing program such as "Pro Tools", "CakeWalk", "Goldwave:, "Adobe Audition", etc...
digital jitterJitter is a term that means that the data (the 1's and the 0's) is not perfectly time-aligned, but rather is transmitted either slightly earlier or later than it should be in the ideal case. However, this time flaw is not as great as to cause a digital error (data fallout). But to our analogue ears, this translates into the harsh distortion we call "that digital sound." (See graphic below as to how "Jitter" would appear on a scope)
digital optical cableSends multiple channels of digital audio from transmitter to receiver by using a light over a short distance. Resists noise and distortion better than coaxial cables. This plastic optical cable should not be confused with fiber optic cable, which is glass fiber and has a much longer range than optical cables. Also called Toslink(tm) cables.
digital surroundSound Surround sound format in which all five channels (left front, front center, right front, right rear, left rear and an optional sixth sub-woofer channel) are discrete and full-range (the subwoofer channel is not full range), recorded in digital audio, and compressed to fit in a smaller space (see 5.1).
dipolar speakerSpeaker featuring speaker drivers on two opposite sides of a speaker enclosure and wired to operate out of phase (as one driver moves in the other moves out) creating a null to the sides of the speaker (very little sound emanating to the sides) and a broad, spread-out sound in general.
direct radiating speakerType of speaker that creates and outputs sound from only one side of the enclosure with that side aimed at the listening position.
discreteSeparate with no interaction between elements.
dispersionDescribes the radiation pattern of sound waves from a sound source (the sound source being a speaker in terms of audio/video); definition of the amount of air all around a speaker excited by the sound waves it produces.
distortionAny difference, apart from level, between an original signal and one that has been processed. One cause may be the overloading of the input stage of an amplifier, but many other forms of distortion, such as harmonic distortion are common.
distribution amplifier (DA)An amplifier used to boost a low-level signal travelling over a long distance.
DIVXDivX is a brand of video codec products developed byDivX, LLC. The DivX codec gained fame for its ability to compress lengthy video segments into small sizes while maintaining relatively high visual quality.
Dolby® 3-channelA pseudo form of surround sound somewhere between stereo two-speaker operation and a full surround sound set-up with surround sound speakers in the rear; Dolby 3-channel uses the front speakers only - the front left, front center, and front right speakers.
Dolby® B noise reductionReduces high frequency hiss noise by 10 decibels.
Dolby® C noise reductionReduces high frequency hiss noise by 20 decibels.
Dolby® DigitalDiscrete digital surround sound format based on Dolby's AC-3 compression scheme to be found on DVDs, some laserdiscs and digital television (see 5.1 and AC-3).
Dolby® Digital ProLogic®The standard for Home Theater Surround Sound Systems, included in most audio/video receivers. The Pro Logic® decoder directs the movement of sound between speakers.
Dolby® Digital soundA digital sound format, which is the basis of surround sound systems. May be 5.1, which is front speakers (right and left), rear speakers (right and left), center channel speaker, and a powered subwoofer. May be a 6.1, which is front speakers (right and left), front center channel speaker, rear speakers (right and left), rear center channel speaker, and a powered subwoofer.
Dolby® Pro-LogicAnalog surround sound format using matrix surround technology to encode four channels of audio information (left, center, right and surround) onto two channels creating a surround sound sonic environment for properly encoded movies and other programming (see Matrix Surround Sound).
Dolby® TrueHDDolby TrueHD is a lossless multi-channel audio codec developed by Dolby Laboratories which is used in home-entertainment equipment such as Blu-ray Disc players and A/V receivers.
driverIndividual moving element of a complete speaker system which is attached to the speaker enclosure and which vibrates, generally in a back and forth piston like motion, to produce sound waves when power is applied from an amplifier. (Also a term used to describe software data used to work in conjunction with computer hardware.)
dryUnprocessed sound.
DSP (Digital Signal Processing)"Digital Signal Processing" is a modern form of processing that uses bit data to simulate characteristics found in analog circuits. Manipulation or alteration of analog signals (commonly audio or video signals) after conversion to a digital format.
DTS (Digital Theater Systems)Discrete, digital 5.1 surround sound format used for movies and music; competitor of Dolby Digital featuring similar but incompatible compression and coding technologies to place six channels of sound on a DVD or on both digital audio tracks of a laserdisc (see 5.1)
DTS-HD MasterDTS-HD Master Audio is a codec created by DTS, used for surround-sound movie soundtracks on Blu-ray Disc.
DVDA type of compact disc able to store large amounts of data, especially high-resolution audiovisual material.
DVI (Digital Visual Interface)Digital Visual Interface (DVI) is a video display interface developed by the Digital Display Working Group (DDWG). The digital interface is used to connect a video source, such as a video display controller, to a display device, such as a computer monitor.
DVR (Digital Video Recorder)Uses large capacity hard drive and internal processing to increase recording time of television shows compared to regular VCRs. Also, has technology to program and control live broadcast.
DVR Digital Video RecorderA video component with an integrated hard drive for recording and time-shifting television programming. DVRs may contain an integrated tuner for receiving cable, over-the-air, satellite and/ or HDTV broadcasts. DVR functionality can also be integrated into other devices such as a home computer, television, or cable/satellite set-top box.
dynamic headroomThe ability of an amplifier to put out more power than its average power output for a short time in order to faithfully reproduce sudden, loud sounds without distorting or clipping (see Headroom).
dynamic microphoneA microphone that converts sound into electrical energy by means of a moving coil located in a magnetic field.
dynamic rangeThe difference between the loudest and softest parts of a musical performance, usually measured in decibels.
dynamicsWhen used in music, refers to the expression of a performance with varying degree of loudness and softness.

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